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  • El Sayyed H, Pambos O, Stracy M, Gottesman M, Kapanidis AN. Single-molecule tracking reveals the functional allocation, in vivo interactions and spatial organization of universal transcription factor NusG. Molecular Cell 2024. doi:



  • Ploetz E, Ambrose B, Barth A, Börner R, Erichson F, Kapanidis AN, Kim HD, Levitus M, Lohman TM, Mazumder A, Rueda D, Steffeni FD, Cordes T, Magennis SW, Lerner E. A new twist on PIFE: photoisomerisation-related fluorescence enhancement. Methods and Applications of Fluorescence 2023, 12, 012001. doi:10.1088/2050-6120/acfb58.


  • Hickman SJ, Miller H, Bukys A, Kapanidis AN, Berks BC. Aberrant Topologies of Bacterial Membrane Proteins Revealed by High Sensitivity Fluorescence Labelling. J Mol Bio 2023, Nov 15;436(2):168368. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2023.168368.


  • Farrar A, Feehily C, Turner P, Zagajewski A, Chatzimichail S, Crook D, Andersson M, Oakley S, Barrett L, El Sayyed H, Fowler PW, Nellåker C, Kapanidis AN, Stoesser N. Infection Inspection: Using the power of citizen science to help with image-based prediction of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli. merRxiv 2023, doi:


  • Lepore A, Thédié D, McLaren L, Azeroglu B, Pambos OJ, Kapanidis AN, El Karoui M. In vivo single-molecule imaging of RecB reveals efficient repair of DNA damage in Escherichia coli. bioRxiv 2023 doi:


  • Wang, Mazumder, Kapanidis AN. Single-molecule conformational analysis of the RNAP sigma-finger reveals its real-time displacement and relation to promoter escape. bioRxiv 2023 (PNAS, under revision).


  • Chatzimichail S, Turner P, Feehily C, Farrar A, El Sayyed H, Crook D, Andersson M, Oakley S, Barrett L, Kyropoulos J, Nellåker C, Stoesser N, Kapanidis AN. Rapid Identification of Bacteria From Clinical Isolates Using Microfluidic Adaptive Channels and Multiplexed Fluorescence Microscopy. medRxiv 2023, doi:


  • Fan J, El Sayyed H, Pambos OJ, Stracy M, Kyropoulos J, Kapanidis AN. RNA polymerase redistribution supports growth in E. coli strains with a minimal number of rRNA operons. Nucleic Acids Res. 2023. Link.


  • McMahon A, Andrews R, Groves D, Ghani SV, Cordes T, Kapanidis AN, Robb NC. High-throughput super-resolution analysis of influenza virus pleomorphism reveals insights into viral spatial organization. PLoS Pathogens. 2023.  Link.


  • Zagajewski A, Turner P, Feehily C, El Sayyed H, Andersson M, Barrett L, Oakley S, Stracy M, Crook D, Nellåker C, Stoesser N, Kapanidis AN. Deep learning and single-cell phenotyping for rapid antimicrobial susceptibility detection in Escherichia coli. Commun Biol. 2023. Link.


  • Kümmerlin M, Mazumder A, Kapanidis AN. Bleaching-resistant, Near-continuous Single-molecule Fluorescence and FRET Based on Fluorogenic and Transient DNA Binding. Chemphyschem. 2023. Link.


  • Agam G, Gebhardt C, Popara M, Mächtel R, Folz J, Ambrose B, Chamachi N, Chung SY, Craggs TD, de Boer M, Grohmann D, Ha T, Hartmann A, Hendrix J, Hirschfeld V, Hübner CG, Hugel T, Kammerer D, Kang HS, Kapanidis AN, Krainer G, Kramm K, Lemke EA, Lerner E, Margeat E, Martens K, Michaelis J, Mitra J, Moya Muñoz GG, Quast RB, Robb NC, Sattler M, Schlierf M, Schneider J, Schröder T, Sefer A, Tan PS, Thurn J, Tinnefeld P, van Noort J, Weiss S, Wendler N, Zijlstra N, Barth A, Seidel CAM, Lamb DC, Cordes T. Reliability and accuracy of single-molecule FRET studies for characterization of structural dynamics and distances in proteins. Nat Methods. 2023. Link.


  • Shiaelis N, Tometzki A, Peto L, McMahon A, Hepp C, Bickerton E, Favard C, Muriaux D, Andersson M, Oakley S, Vaughan A, Matthews PC, Stoesser N, Crook DW, Kapanidis AN, Robb NC. Virus Detection and Identification in Minutes Using Single-Particle Imaging and Deep Learning. ACS Nano. 2023. Link.




  • Andrews, R, Steuer H, El-Sagheer AH, Mazumder A, el Sayyed H, Shivalingam A, Brown T, Kapanidis AN. Transient DNA binding to gapped DNA substrates links DNA sequence to the single-molecule kinetics of protein-DNA interactions. bioRxiv 2022, doi:


  • Evans GW, Craggs T, Kapanidis AN. The Rate-limiting Step of DNA Synthesis by DNA Polymerase Occurs in the Fingers-closed Conformation. J Mol Biol. 2022. Link.


  • Malinen AM, Bakermans J, Aalto-Setälä E, Blessing M, Bauer DLV, Parilova O, Belogurov GA, Dulin D, Kapanidis AN. Real-Time Single-Molecule Studies of RNA Polymerase-Promoter Open Complex Formation Reveal Substantial Heterogeneity Along the Promoter-Opening Pathway. J Mol Biol. 2022. Link.



  • Mazumder A, Ebright RH, Kapanidis A. Transcription initiation at a consensus bacterial promoter proceeds via a 'bind-unwind-load-and-lock' mechanism. Elife. 2021. Link.


  • Hepp C, Shiaelis N, Robb NC, Vaughan A, Matthews PC, Stoesser N, Crook D, Kapanidis AN. Viral detection and identification in 20 min by rapid single-particle fluorescence in-situ hybridization of viral RNA. Sci Rep. 2021.  Link.


  • Lerner E, Barth A, Hendrix J, Ambrose B, Birkedal V, Blanchard SC, Börner R, Sung Chung H, Cordes T, Craggs TD, Deniz AA, Diao J, Fei J, Gonzalez RL, Gopich IV, Ha T, Hanke CA, Haran G, Hatzakis NS, Hohng S, Hong SC, Hugel T, Ingargiola A, Joo C, Kapanidis AN, Kim HD, Laurence T, Lee NK, Lee TH, Lemke EA, Margeat E, Michaelis J, Michalet X, Myong S, Nettels D, Peulen TO, Ploetz E, Razvag Y, Robb NC, Schuler B, Soleimaninejad H, Tang C, Vafabakhsh R, Lamb DC, Seidel CA, Weiss S. FRET-based dynamic structural biology: Challenges, perspectives and an appeal for open-science practices. Elife. 2021. Link.


  • Stracy M, Schweizer J, Sherratt DJ, Kapanidis AN, Uphoff S, Lesterlin C. Transient non-specific DNA binding dominates the target search of bacterial DNA-binding proteins. Mol Cell. 2021. Link.



  • Afanzar O, Di Paolo D, Eisenstein M, Levi K, Plochowietz A, Kapanidis AN, Berry RM, Eisenbach M. The switching mechanism of the bacterial rotary motor combines tight regulation with inherent flexibility. EMBO J. 2021.  Link.


  • Mazumder A, Wang A, Uhm H, Ebright RH, Kapanidis AN. RNA polymerase clamp conformational dynamics: long-lived states and modulation by crowding, cations, and nonspecific DNA binding. Nucleic Acids Res. 2021. Link.




  • Mazumder A, Lin M, Kapanidis AN, Ebright RH. Closing and opening of the RNA polymerase trigger loop. PNAS. 2020. Link.



  • Sow M, Steuer H, Adekanye S, Ginés L, Mandal S, Gilboa B, Williams OA, Smith JM, Kapanidis AN. High-throughput nitrogen-vacancy center imaging for nanodiamond photophysical characterization and pH nanosensing. Nanoscale. 2020.  Link.




  • Craggs TD, Sustarsic M, Plochowietz A, Mosayebi M, Kaju H, Cuthbert A, Hohlbein J, Domicevica L, Biggin PC, Doye JPK, Kapanidis AN. Substrate conformational dynamics facilitate structure-specific recognition of gapped DNA by DNA polymerase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2019. Link.


  • Robb NC, Taylor JM, Kent A, Pambos OJ, Gilboa B, Evangelidou M, Mentis AA, Kapanidis AN. Rapid functionalisation and detection of viruses via a novel Ca2+-mediated virus-DNA interaction. Sci Rep. 2019. Link.



  • Gilboa B, Jing B, Cui TJ, Sow M, Plochowietz A, Mazumder A, Kapanidis AN. Confinement-Free Wide-Field Ratiometric Tracking of Single Fluorescent Molecules. Biophys J. 2019. Link.



  • Craggs TD, Sustarsic M, Plochowietz A, Mosayebi M, Kaju H, Cuthbert A, Hohlbein J, Domicevica L, Biggin PC, Doye JPK, Kapanidis AN. Substrate conformational dynamics facilitate structure-specific recognition of gapped DNA by DNA polymerase. Nucleic Acids Res. 2019. Link.



  • Mazumder A, Kapanidis AN. Recent Advances in Understanding σ70-Dependent Transcription Initiation Mechanisms. J Mol Biol. 2019. Link.


  • Robb NC, Te Velthuis AJW, Fodor E, Kapanidis AN. Real-time analysis of single influenza virus replication complexes reveals large promoter-dependent differences in initiation dynamics. Nucleic Acids Res. 2019.  Link.


robb et al

  • Pambos OJ, Kapanidis AN. Tracking antibiotic mechanisms. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2019. Link.


  • Klein HL, Ang KKH, Arkin MR, Beckwitt EC, Chang YH, Fan J, Kwon Y, Morten MJ, Mukherjee S, Pambos OJ, El Sayyed H, Thrall ES, Vieira-da-Rocha JP, Wang Q, Wang S, Yeh HY, Biteen JS, Chi P, Heyer WD, Kapanidis AN, Loparo JJ, Strick TR, Sung P, Van Houten B, Niu H, Rothenberg E. Guidelines for DNA recombination and repair studies: Mechanistic assays of DNA repair processes. Microb Cell. 2019. Link.




  • Hellenkamp B, Schmid S, Doroshenko O, Opanasyuk O, Kühnemuth R, Rezaei Adariani S, Ambrose B, Aznauryan M, Barth A, Birkedal V, Bowen ME, Chen H, Cordes T, Eilert T, Fijen C, Gebhardt C, Götz M, Gouridis G, Gratton E, Ha T, Hao P, Hanke CA, Hartmann A, Hendrix J, Hildebrandt LL, Hirschfeld V, Hohlbein J, Hua B, Hübner CG, Kallis E, Kapanidis AN, Kim JY, Krainer G, Lamb DC, Lee NK, Lemke EA, Levesque B, Levitus M, McCann JJ, Naredi-Rainer N, Nettels D, Ngo T, Qiu R, Robb NC, Röcker C, Sanabria H, Schlierf M, Schröder T, Schuler B, Seidel H, Streit L, Thurn J, Tinnefeld P, Tyagi S, Vandenberk N, Vera AM, Weninger KR, Wünsch B, Yanez-Orozco IS, Michaelis J, Seidel CAM, Craggs TD, Hugel T. Precision and accuracy of single-molecule FRET measurements-a multi-laboratory benchmark study. Nat Methods. 2018. Link.
  •  Duchi D, Mazumder A, Malinen AM, Ebright RH, Kapanidis AN. The RNA polymerase clamp interconverts dynamically among three states and is stabilized in a partly closed state by ppGpp. Nucleic Acids Res. 2018.   Link.
  • Kapanidis AN, Stracy M. Tracking tRNA packages. Nat Chem Biol. 2018. Link.
  • Kapanidis AN, Uphoff S, Stracy M. Understanding Protein Mobility in Bacteria by Tracking Single Molecules. J Mol Biol. 2018. Link.
  • Dulin D, Bauer DLV, Malinen AM, Bakermans JJW, Kaller M, Morichaud Z, Petushkov I, Depken M, Brodolin K, Kulbachinskiy A, Kapanidis AN. Pausing controls branching between productive and non-productive pathways during initial transcription in bacteria. Nat Commun. 2018. Link.
  • Kapanidis AN, Lepore A, El Karoui M, Rediscovering Bacteria through Single-Molecule Imaging in Living Cells. Biophys J. 2018. Link.
  • Lin W, Das K, Degen D, Mazumder A, Duchi D, Wang D, Ebright YW, Ebright RY, Sineva E, Gigliotti M, Srivastava A, Mandal S, Jiang Y, Liu Y, Yin R, Zhang Z, Eng ET, Thomas D, Donadio S, Zhang H, Zhang C, Kapanidis AN, Ebright RH, Structural Basis of Transcription Inhibition by Fidaxomicin (Lipiarmycin A3). Mol Cell. 2018. Link.
  • Duchi D, Gryte K, Robb NC, Morichaud Z, Sheppard C, Brodolin K, Kapanidis AN, Conformational heterogeneity and bubble dynamics in single bacterial transcription initiation complexes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2018. Link.




  • Stracy M, Kapanidis AN, Probing Single-molecule and super-resolution imaging of transcription in living bacteria. Methods. 2017. Link.


  • Garza de Leon F, Sellars L, Stracy M, Busby SJ, Kapanidis AN, Tracking Low-Copy Transcription Factors in Living Bacteria: The Case of the lac Repressor. Biophys J. 2017. Link


  • Lamberte LE, Baniulyte G, Singh SS, Stringer AM, Bonocora RP, Stracy M, Kapanidis AN, Wade JT, Grainger DC, Horizontally acquired AT-rich genes in Escherichia coli cause toxicity by sequestering RNA polymerase. Nat Microbiol. 2017. Link



  • Hohlbein J, Kapanidis AN, Probing the Conformational Landscape of DNA Polymerases Using Diffusion-Based Single-Molecule FRET. Methods Enzymol. 2016. Link.


  • Robb NC, Te Velthuis AJ, Wieneke R, Tampé R, Cordes T, Fodor E, Kapanidis AN, Single-molecule FRET reveals the pre-initiation and initiation conformations of influenza virus promoter RNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016. Link


  • Plochowietz A, Farrell I, Smilansky Z, Cooperman BS, Kapanidis AN, In vivo single-RNA tracking shows that most tRNA diffuses freely in live bacteria. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016. Link


  • Duchi D, Bauer DL, Fernandez L, Evans G, Robb N, Hwang LC, Gryte K, Tomescu A, Zawadzki P, Morichaud Z, Brodolin K, Kapanidis AN, RNA Polymerase Pausing during Initial Transcription. Mol Cell. 2016. Link


  • Te Velthuis AJ, Robb NC, Kapanidis AN, Fodor E, The role of the priming loop in influenza A virus RNA synthesis. Nat Microbiol. 2016. Link


  • Stracy M, Jaciuk M, Uphoff S, Kapanidis AN, Nowotny M, Sherratt DJ, Zawadzki P, Single-molecule imaging of UvrA and UvrB recruitment to DNA lesions in living Escherichia coli. Nat Commun. 2016. Link


  • Sadler EE, Kapanidis AN, Tucker SJ, Solution-Based Single-Molecule FRET Studies of K(+) Channel Gating in a Lipid Bilayer. Biophys J. 2016. Link


  • Meli M, Sustarsic M, Craggs TD, Kapanidis AN, Colombo G., DNA Polymerase Conformational Dynamics and the Role of Fidelity-Conferring Residues: Insights from Computational Simulations. Front Mol Biosci. 2016. Link


  • Pawel Zawadzki, Mathew Stracy, Katarzyna Ginda, Katarzyna Zawadzka, Christian Lesterlin, Achillefs N. Kapanidis, David J. Sherratt, The Localization and Action of Topoisomerase IV in Escherichia coli Chromosome Segregation Is Coordinated by the SMC Complex, MukBEF. Cell Reports. 2015. Link


  • May PF, Zawadzki P, Sherratt DJ, Kapanidis AN, Arciszewska LK. Assembly, translocation, and activation of XerCD-dif recombination by FtsK translocase analyzed in real-time by FRET and two-color tethered fluorophore motion. PNAS, 2015. Link


  • Sustarsic M, Kapanidis AN. Taking the ruler to the jungle: single-molecule FRET for understanding biomolecular structure and dynamics in live cells. Current Opinion in Structural Biology, 2015. Link


  • Plochowietz A, Kapanidis AN. Single in the (Cell) City: a protein-folding story. Nature Methods, 2015. Link


  • Stracy M, Lesterlin C, Garza de Leon F, Uphoff S, Zawadzki P, Kapanidis AN. Live-cell superresolution microscopy reveals the organization of RNA polymerase in the bacterial nucleoid. PNAS, 2015. Link


  • Evans GW, Hohlbein J, Craggs T, Aigrain L, Kapanidis AN. Real-time single-molecule studies of the motions of DNA polymerase fingers illuminate DNA synthesis mechanisms. Nucleic Acids Research, 2015. Link


  • Aigrain L, Sustarsic M, Crawford R, Plochowietz A, Kapanidis AN. Internalization and observation of fluorescent biomolecules in living microorganisms via electroporation. J Vis Exp, 2015. Open Access Video



  • May PFJ, Pinkney JNM, Zawadzki P, Evans GW, Sherratt DJ, and Kapanidis AN. Tethered Fluorophore Motion: Studying Large DNA Conformational Changes by Single-fluorophore Imaging. Biophys J, 2014. Link


  • Tomescu AI, Robb NC, Hengrung N, Fodor E, Kapanidis AN. Single-molecule FRET reveals a corkscrew RNA structure for the polymerase-bound influenza virus promoter. PNAS, 2014. Link


  • Stracy M, Uphoff S, Garza de Leon F, Kapanidis AN. In vivo single-molecule imaging of bacterial DNA replication, transcription, and repair. FEBS Lett., 2014, Corrected Proof


  • Plochowietz A, Crawford R, Kapanidis AN. Characterization of organic fluorophores for in vivo FRET studies based on electroporated molecules. Phys Chem Chem Phys, 2014. Link. Also highlighted in RSC Blogs.


  • Sustarsic M, Plochowietz A, Aigrain L, Yuzenkova Y, Zenkin N, Kapanidis A. Optimized delivery of fluorescently labeled proteins in live bacteria using electroporation. Histochem Cell Biol, 2014. Link


  • Uphoff S, Sherratt D, Kapanidis AN. Visualizing protein-DNA interactions in live bacterial cells using photoactivated single-molecule tracking. J of Vis Exp, 2014. Watch the Video Article



  • Uphoff S, Sherratt D, Kapanidis AN. Studying the organization of DNA repair by single-cell and single-molecule imaging. DNA Repair, 2014. Link.



  • Crawford R, Torella JP, Aigrain L, Plochowietz A, Gryte K, Uphoff S, and Kapanidis AN, Long-Lived Intracellular Single-Molecule Fluorescence Using Electroporated Molecules, Biophys J, 2013. LinkPDF


  • Zawadzki P, May PFJ, Baker RA, Pinkney JNM, Kapanidis AN, Sherratt DJ, and Arciszewska LK, Conformational transitions during FtsK translocase activation of individual XerCD-dif recombination complexes, PNAS, 2013.  LinkPDF



  • Hohlbein J, Aigrain L, Craggs TD, Bermek O, Potapova O, Shoolizadeh P, Grindley NDF, Joyce CM, and Kapanidis AN, Conformational landscapes of DNA polymerase I and mutator derivatives establish fidelity checkpoints for nucleotide insertion, Nature Communications, 2013. LinkPDF



  • Periz J, Celma C, Jing B, Pinkney JN, Roy P, Kapanidis AN, Rotavirus mRNAS are released by transcript-specific channels in the double-layered viral capsid, PNAS, 2013. LinkPDF



  • Endesfelder U, Finan K, Holden SJ, Cook PR, Kapanidis AN, Heilemann M, Multiscale Spatial Organization of RNA Polymerase in Escherichia coli., Biophys. J., 2013. LinkPDF


  • Uphoff S, Reyes-Lamothe R, Garza de Leon F, Sherratt DJ, Kapanidis AN, Single-molecule DNA repair in live bacteria, PNAS, 2013. LinkPDF



  • Crawford R, Erben CM, Periz J, Hall LM, Brown T, Turberfield AJ, Kapanidis AN, Non-covalent Single Transcription Factor Encapsulation Inside a DNA Cage., Angew. Chem., 2013. LinkPDF



  • Robb NC, Cordes T, Hwang LC, Gryte K, Duchi D, Craggs TD, Santoso Y, Weiss S, Ebright RH, Kapanidis AN, The Transcription Bubble of the RNA Polymerase-Promoter Open Complex Exhibits Conformational Heterogeneity and Millisecond-Scale Dynamics: Implications for Transcription Start-Site Selection, J Mol Biol, 2013. LinkPDF



  • Craggs TD and Kapanidis AN, Six steps closer to FRET-driven structural biology, Nature Methods, 2012. LinkPDF


  • Pinkney JNM, Zawadzki P, Mazuryk J, Arciszewska LK, Sherratt DJ, Kapanidis AN, Capturing reaction paths and intermediates in Cre-loxP recombination using single-molecule fluorescence, PNAS, 2012. LinkPDF



  • Finan K, Torella JP, Kapanidis AN, Cook PR, T7 RNA polymerase functions in vitro without clustering, PLoS ONE 2012. Link  PDF


  • Le Reste L, Hohlbein J, Gryte K, Kapanidis AN, Characterization of Dark Quencher Chromophores as Nonfluorescent Acceptors for Single-Molecule FRET, Biophysical Journal 2012. PDF



  • Crawford R, Kelly DJ, Kapanidis AN, A Protein Biosensor That Relies on Bending of Single DNA Molecules, ChemPhysChem 2012. PDF



  • Kapanidis AN and Crawford R, Colorful Molecular Diagnostics, Clinical Chemistry 2012. PDF



  • Holden SJ, Uphoff S, Kapanidis AN, DAOSTORM: an algorithm for high-density super-resolution microscopy, Nature Methods 2011. PDF



  • Torella JP, Holden SJ, Santoso Y, Hohlbein J, Kapanidis AN, Identifying molecular dynamics in single-molecule FRET experiments with Burst Variance Analysis. Biophysical Journal 2011. PDF



  • Uphoff S, Gryte K, Evans G, Kapanidis AN. High temporal resolution and linked hidden Markov modeling for switchable single-molecule FRET. ChemPhysChem 2011. PDF




  • Cordes T, Santoso Y, Tomescu AI, Gryte K, Hwang LC, Camara B, Wigneshweraraj S, Kapanidis AN, Sensing DNA opening in transcription using quenchable FRET. Biochemistry, 2010. PDF Supporting Information.



  • Holden SJ, Uphoff S, Hohlbein J, Yadin D, Le Reste L, Britton O J, Kapanidis AN, Defining the limits of single-molecule FRET resolution in TIRF microscopy. Biophysical Journal 2010. PDF Supporting Material.





  • Santoso Y*, Torella JP*, Kapanidis AN, Characterizing single-molecule FRET dynamics with Probability Distribution Analysis. ChemPhysChem 2010. *equal contribution. PDF Supporting Information.



  • Lymperopoulos K*, Crawford R*, Torella JP, Heilemann M, Hwang LC, Holden SJ, and Kapanidis AN, Single-molecule DNA biosensors for protein and ligand detection. Angew. Chem. 2010. *equal contribution. PDF Supporting Information.


  • Hohlbein J, Gryte K, Heilemann M, Kapanidis AN, Surfing on the third wave of single-molecule fluorescence methods. Physical Biology 2010. PDF.



  • Santoso Y*, Joyce CM*, Potapova O, Le Reste L, Hohlbein J, Torella JP, Grindley NDF, Kapanidis AN, Conformational transitions in DNA polymerase I revealed by single-molecule FRET. PNAS 2010. *equal contribution.  PDF Supporting Information.




  • Hwang LC, Hohlbein J, Holden SJ, Kapanidis AN, Single-Molecule FRET: Methods and Biological Applications. Chapter 5 in Handbook of Single-Molecule Biophysics, Springer New York, 2009. Link.
  • Santoso Y, Kapanidis AN, Probing Biomolecular Structures and Dynamics of Single Molecules Using In-gel Alternating-Laser Excitation. Anal. Chem. 2009. PDF Supporting Information.



  • Holden SJ, Kapanidis AN, Alternating-Laser Excitation and Pulsed-Interleaved Excitation of Single Molecules. Chapter 6 in Single Particle Tracking and Single Molecule Energy Transfer: Applications in the Bio and Nano Sciences, Wiley-VHC, 2009
  • Carstairs HM, Lymperopoulos K, Kapanidis AN, Bath J, Turberfield AJ. DNA monofunctionalization of quantum dots. Chembiochem. 2009.
  • Goodman RP, Erben CM, Malo J, Ho WM, McKee ML, Kapanidis AN, Turberfield AJ. A facile method for reversibly linking a recombinant protein to DNA. Chembiochem. 2009.
  • Kapanidis AN, Strick T. Biology, one molecule at a time. Trends Biochem Sci. 2009. PDF


  • Heilemann M, Hwang LC, Lymperopoulos K, Kapanidis AN. Single-molecule FRET analysis of protein-DNA complexes. Methods Mol Biol. 2009. Link



  • Santoso Y, Hwang LC, Le Reste L, Kapanidis AN. Red light, green light: probing single molecules using alternating laser excitation. Biochem Soc Transactions, 2008. PDF


  • Goodman RP, Heilemann M, Doose S, Erben CM, Kapanidis AN, Turberfield AJ. Reconfigurable, braced, three-dimensional DNA nanostructures. Nature Nanotech, 2008. PDF Supplementary Information


  • Kapanidis AN, Heilemann M, Margeat E, Kong X, Nir E, Weiss S. Alternating-Laser Excitation of Single Molecules. Chapter in Single-molecule techniques: a laboratory manual, 2008.



  • Heilemann M, Lymperopoulos K, Wigneshweraraj SR, Buck M, Kapanidis AN. Studying sigma54-dependent transcription with alternating-laser excitation (ALEX) spectroscopy. Proc SPIE, 2007. PDF
  • Harding PJ, Attrill H, Ross S, Koeppe JR, Kapanidis AN, Watts A. Neurotensin receptor type 1: Escherichia coli expression, purification, characterization and biophysical study. Bioch Soc Transactions, 2007.
  • Doose S, Heilemann M, Michalet X, Weiss S, Kapanidis AN. Periodic acceptor excitation spectroscopy of single molecules. European Biophys J, 2007. PDF
  • Lee NK, Kapanidis AN, Koh HR, Wang Y, Ho SO, Kim Y, Gassman N, Kim SK, and Weiss S. Three-color alternating-laser excitation of single molecules: monitoring multiple interactions and distances. Biophys J 2007.  PDF Supplementary Material



  • Kapanidis AN, Margeat E, Ho SO, Kortkhonjia E, Weiss S, Ebright RH. Initial transcription by RNA polymerase proceeds through a DNA-scrunching mechanism. Science 2006. PDF Supporting Online Material


  • Margeat E, Kapanidis AN, Tinnefeld P, Wang Y, Mukhopadhyay J, Ebright RH, Weiss S. Direct observation of promoter escape and abortive initiation in single immobilized transcription complexes. Biophys J, 2006. PDF



  • Kapanidis AN, Margeat E, Laurence T, Doose S, Ho SO, Mukhopadhyay J, Kortkhonjia E, Ebright RH, Weiss S. Retention of transcription initiation factor σ70 in transcription elongation: single-molecule analysis. Mol Cell, 2005, 20, 347-56. Highlighted in “Single RNA polymerases on the stage”, Nat Meth, 2006. PDF Supplemental Data


  • Kapanidis AN, Laurence T, Lee NK, Margeat E, Kong X, Weiss S. Alternating-laser excitation of single molecules. Acc Chem Res, 2005. PDF.
  • Lee NK, Kapanidis AN, Wang Y, Michalet X, Mukhopadhyay J, Ebright RH, Weiss S. Accurate FRET measurements within single diffusing biomolecules using alternating-laser excitation. Biophys J, 2005.  PDF Supplemental Text

2004 and earlier


  • Kapanidis AN, Lee NK, Laurence T, Doose S, Margeat E, Weiss S. Fluorescence-aided molecule sorting: analysis of structure and interactions by alternating-laser excitation of single molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2004.  Full text + Supporting Information
  • Laurence T, Kapanidis AN, Kong X, Chemla D, Weiss S. Photon-arrival-time interval distribution (PAID): a novel tool for analyzing molecular interactions. J Phys Chem B, 2004.
    PDF Supporting Information
  • Michalet X, Kapanidis AN, Laurence T, Pinaud F, Doose S, Pflughoefft M, Weiss S. The power and prospects of fluorescence microscopies and spectroscopies. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct. 2003.  PDF
  • Kapanidis AN, Weiss S. Fluorescent probes and bioconjugation chemistries for single-molecule fluorescence analysis of biomolecules. J Chem Phys. 2002. PDF
  • Mekler V, Kortkhonjia E, Mukhopadhyay J, Knight J, Revyakin A, Kapanidis AN, Niu W, Ebright YW, Levy R, Ebright RH. Structural organization of RNA polymerase holoenzyme and the RNA polymerase-promoter open complex: systematic fluorescence resonance energy transfer and distance-constrained docking. Cell. 2002. PDF Supplemental Data
  • Kapanidis AN, Ebright YW, Ludescher RD, Chan S, Ebright RH. Mean DNA Bend Angle and Distribution of DNA Bend Angles in the CAP-DNA Complex in Solution. J Mol Biol. 2001. PDF
  • Kapanidis AN, Ebright YW, Ebright RH. Site-specific incorporation of fluorescent probes into protein: hexahistidine-tag-mediated fluorescent labeling using (Ni2+:Nitrilotriacetic acid)n-fluorochrome conjugates. J Am Chem Soc. 2001. PDF Supporting Information
  • Mukhopadhyay J*, Kapanidis AN*, Mekler V, Kortkhonjia E, Ebright YW, Ebright RH. Translocation of s70 with RNA polymerase during transcription: fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay for movement relative to DNA. Cell 2001. *Equal contributionPDF
  • Lagrange T, Kapanidis AN, Tang H, Reinberg D, Ebright RH. New core promoter element in RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription: sequence-specific DNA binding by transcription factor IIB. Genes Dev. 1998. PDF

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